The Internet of Things IoT is a network of devices. This network is often wireless.
IoT (Internet of Things) is an advanced automation and analytics system that leverages networking, research, big data and artificial intelligence technology to deliver complete systems
for a product or service. These systems provide greater transparency, control and performance when implemented in any industry or system.
This means that things are becoming "smart", sharing information, which is currently being analyzed, and on the basis of that, some action is taken that makes it easier for people to eliminate a problem or help them finish a job or please themselves more easily. For example. if "someone" gets stuck in traffic, IoT finds him an alternative route, how to avoid traffic jams. Smart homes, where doors are opened automatically, air conditioning is on, or coffee is waiting for you is nothing new. To accomplish this, things (devices are assigned an IP address so that they can be identified and that they can send information about the device to the Internet. Sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. Due to the large amount of data (Big Data) that sensors collect in real time, they are stored and processed on the cloud in most cases. actuators.
The Internet of Things is made up of electronics (microcontrollers), sensors, actuators and network connectivity that allows elements in the network to collect and exchange data
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a new concept of smart automation and smart monitoring using the Internet as a medium of communication. The “stuff” in IoT (The Internet of Things) usually refers to devices that have unique identifiers connected to the Internet to share information with one another. Such devices have sensors and / or actuators that can be used to collect information about their environments as well as monitor and control them.
An example of the Internet of Things in the medical field:
Mira is an emergency room nurse. A call arrived for a man wounded in an altercation.
The system recognizes the patient and extracts his information. At the scene is hospital equipment that records essential patient information, which is automatically sent to the hospital. The system analyzes new data and current data to find the best solution. Patient status is updated every second in the system during transport. The system asks Mira to approve actions to distribute medicines and prepare medical equipment.
An example of the Internet of Things in Mechanical Engineering:
The motor vehicle collects certain information from various sensors on the vehicle (temperature, intake manifold pressure, engine speed, throttle position, etc.), is converted to the corresponding electrical signals and sent to the ECU computer also located on the vehicle. This information is being processed and control signals are still being sent to actuators (relays, solenoids, hydraulic cylinders, injectors, etc.) to improve vehicle performance (optimum combustion, low power consumption, quiet engine operation, etc.).
Features of the Internet of Things:
Artificial intelligence. In fact, IoT makes almost everything "smart", which means it enhances every aspect of life through data collection subtleties, artificial intelligence algorithms and networks. This can mean something as simple as improving the detection of your fridge and cupboard when the milk and your favorite cereals run out and then place an order at one of your preferred stores.
Connection. New information technology for networking, especially IoT networking, is no longer solely tied to major providers. Networks can exist on a much smaller and cheaper scale, while being more practical. IoT creates these small networks between its system devices.
Sensors. Those purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment ,and send the information to other electronics.
Active engagement. Most of today's interaction with related technology is accomplished through passive engagement. IoT represents a new paradigm for active content, products, or service engagement.
Small appliances. The devices are projected to become smaller, cheaper and better over time. IoT uses dedicated small devices to deliver its precision, scalability and versatility.
Today, there is a growing need for smart systems, which use devices controlled by microcontrollers that communicate with each other over the Internet, which use sensors to collect information, where data is sent over the internet and stored somewhere.
Smart 'devices / systems
When we say that devices are smart, they mean that they are controlled by a controller on which a certain control algorithm is implemented (programmed).
The control algorithm is a mathematical function that achieves the desired behavior of the entire system being regulated.
Examples of smart systems are e.g. mechatronic systems on a motor vehicle. who monitor the information on the current engine mode, process and act on the actuators to ensure the best possible combustion, optimal fuel consumption, vehicle stability, comfort, safety, etc. at all times. An on-board mechatronic system consists of:
Sensors. It collects information about the relevant physical size (speed, acceleration, force, pressure, temperature ...) and converts that physical size into an electrical signal suitable for processing by a computer.
• microcontroller - computer
• processes input data based on loaded software and stored parameter values
• sends control signals to the process control actuator
• electric motor, solenoid ...
• Generates forces / torques to move control elements
Actuators on a motor vehicle
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Measures physical size from the environment and converts them into electrical signals.
The desktop, tablet, and cellphone remain integral parts of IoT as the command center and
IoT Technologies and Protocols
IoT primarily exploits standard protocols and networking technologies. However, the major
enabling technologies and protocols of IoT are RFID, NFC, low-energy Bluetooth, low-energy
wireless, low-energy radio protocols, LTE-A, and WiFi-Direct. These technologies support the
specific networking functionality needed in an IoT system in contrast to a standard uniform
network of common systems.
NFC i RFID
RFID (radio-frequency identification) and NFC (near-field communication) provide simple, lowenergy,
and versatile options for identity and access tokens, connection bootstrapping, and
RFID technology employs 2-way radio transmitter-receivers to identify and track tags
associated with objects.
NFC consists of communication protocols for electronic devices, typically a mobile device
and a standard device.
This technology supports the low-power, long-use need of IoT function while exploiting a
standard technology with native support across systems.
This technology replaces the most power hungry aspect of an IoT system. Though sensors and
other elements can power down over long periods, communication links (i.e., wireless) must
remain in listening mode. Low-energy wireless not only reduces consumption, but also extends
the life of the device through less use.
ZigBee, Z-Wave, and Thread are radio protocols for creating low-rate private area networks.
These technologies are low-power, but offer high throughput unlike many similar options. This
increases the power of small local device networks without the typical costs.
LTE-A, or LTE Advanced, delivers an important upgrade to LTE technology by increasing not only
its coverage, but also reducing its latency and raising its throughput. It gives IoT a tremendous
power through expanding its range, with its most significant applications being vehicle, UAV,
and similar communication.
WiFi-Direct eliminates the need for an access point. It allows P2P (peer-to-peer) connections
with the speed of WiFi, but with lower latency. WiFi-Direct eliminates an element of a network
that often bogs it down, and it does not compromise on speed or throughput.